Introduction to the Cold Forging Process

When it comes to manufacturing metal parts, there are a variety of different processes that can be used. Of these processes, cold forging is one of the most popular. What is cold forging and how does it differ from other methods? This blog post will explore those questions and provide an overview of the cold forging process. Stay tuned for future posts that will go into more detail on individual aspects of this process!

What is a cold forging process

Cold forging is a process in which the metal is shaped at room temperature using dies. This forging is typically used for smaller parts that require high precision, such as gears or engine components. The metal is placed between two dies and then compressed, causing it to take on the desired shape. The cold forging temperature range is generally between room temperature to 500°F (260°C).

The cold forging process has several advantages over other metal forming methods, including increased strength and durability, environmental friendly, and enhanced dimensional accuracy. In addition, cold forged parts often require less post-processing than parts made with other methods, such as machining. As a result, cold forging is an efficient and cost-effective way to produce high-quality metal components.


Basic steps

Cold forging is a process whereby metals are worked at ambient or near-ambient temperatures to produce parts with a wide range of shapes and sizes.

The process can be performed with various metals, including steel, aluminum, brass, and bronze. While cold forging by hand can be an option, it is most often accomplished using specialized machinery.

· Preparation of metal

The first step in the cold forging process is to prepare the metal for shaping. In order to prevent cracking or breaking, the metal must be properly prepared before it is forged.

· Preparation of mold

Next, the metal is placed into a die, which is a negative mold that gives the desired shape to the metal. The dies are typically made from tool steel, and they must be harder than the metal being forged.

· Hammering

In this step, the metal is hammered or pressed into the die to create the desired shape.

· Finishing

After the cold hammer forging process, the metal is taken from the mold and, if necessary, surface finishing operations are performed.

Types of cold forging process

There are two main types of cold forging: impression die forging and roll forging.

· Impression die forging


Impression die forging is the most common type of cold forging process. In this process, a metal blank is placed in a die or mold that has the desired shape of the finished product. The blank is then struck with a hammer or other tool to deform it into the shape of the die or mold. Depending on the component’s design, a single die or multiple sets of dies may be required for forging. A component may pass through bursting, blocking, and finishing dies during multistage forging.

In addition to producing symmetrical components, impression die forging may make parts have holes, pockets, and protrusions. This process allows for creating high-quality components at a comparatively low cost. Consequently, the parts are durable, have better strength-to-weight ratios, and withstand fatigue and impact.

Roll forging

Roll forging is a type of cold forging process that involves passing a metal bar through a set of rolls to deform it into the desired shape. This process decreases the thickness while increasing the length. The mechanical qualities of parts produced by roll forging are better than those of several other methods. This process is typically used to create long, thin objects such as nails or screws.



Cold forging offers various advantages over other metal-forming techniques.

  • The process of cold forging can enhance the material characteristics of a workpiece. This is because the process can work-harden the material, which increases its strength and durability.
  • Cold forging can also increase the tolerances of a workpiece. The process produces parts with tighter tolerances than other machining methods.
  • The scrap rate of a cold forging process is typically lower than other machining methods. The reason for this is that the procedure generates relatively little waste material.
  • This process uses less energy than other machining processes and is environmental friendly.
  • Cold forging process is a cost-effective manufacturing method. This is since the process involves less material and manpower than other processes.

Limitations of Cold Forging

  • Cold forging is limited to specific shapes. This is because the process can only produce parts with a certain amount of curvature.
  • The process requires special dies. These dies are typically expensive and require a high level of durability.
  • Metals that are brittle, such as cast iron, are not well suited for the cold forging process. It works best with metals that are ductile, such as copper and aluminum.
  • Another limitation is the size of the component being created. Cold forging works best on small parts, as larger parts are more likely to crack or break during the process.
  • The initial investment for a cold forging project is typically high.

Hot forging vs. cold forging process

Cold forging and hot forging are two different types of metalworking processes. The main benefits of the cold forging process include increased strength and ductility and smaller grain size. However, the hot forging advantages include reduced tool wear and the ability to shape complex geometries. When choosing between forging processes, it is essential to consider the application’s specific requirements.

Cold forging vs. Hot Forging

· Temperature:

The main difference between the hot and cold forging process is the temperature at which the process is performed. The hot forging temperature range is generally between 1200°F (650°C) and 2400°F (1300°C), while cold forging is performed at room temperature or a bit higher.

· Equipment:

Hot forging requires more advance equipment than cold forging. The hot forging process requires furnaces and forges presses, while the cold forging process only requires a press and a die.

· Dies:

Hot press forging process dies are typically made from steel, while cold forging dies are usually made from carbide or HSS.

· Material Characteristics:

The cold forging process enhances the material’s strength via strain hardening. In contrast, the hot forging process prevents the strain hardening of materials.

· Scrap Rate:

The hot metal forging process has a higher scrap rate than cold forging. This is because the process produces more waste material.

· Cost:

Typically, hot forging is more costly than cold forging. This is due to the increased equipment and personnel requirements of the operation.

Suitable materials

To be suitable for cold forging, a material must have a number of specific properties. It must be ductile so that it can be deformed without breaking. It must also be strong enough to withstand the high pressures involved in the forging process. In addition, the material must have a low carbon content to be easily machined and finished.

· Aluminum:

Aluminum is a soft metal and is easy to be cold forged. The metal is often used to create parts with high accuracy.

· Brass:

Brass is a malleable metal that can be cold-forged into a variety of forms. Metal is often utilized to make ornamental components.

· Bronze:

It is a brittle metal that can be cold-forged into intricate forms. Often, the metal is employed to build very durable components.

· Iron:

It’s possible to cold forge iron into many different forms, even though it’s a hard metal. High-strength components are often produced from this metal.

· Steel:

Hard steel is also commonly used in the cold forging process. Parts requiring a high level of tensile strength are often made from metal.

· Titanium:

Titanium is a tough material capable of being used for several cold forge projects. The metal is often utilized to make items with great strength.

· Copper:

Highly precise components can be made by cold forging copper. It is a soft metal and is generally used for electrical cables manufacturing industries.

Tirapid is a leading cold forging services provider in China, with ten years of experience in the industry. The company specializes in producing high-precision metal parts and components for various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical.

We offer a wide range of services, including metal stamping, die casting, and machining. We are committed to providing clients with high-quality products and comprehensive services.

Our state-of-the-art facilities and equipment allow us to provide our clients with the minimum lead time. In addition to forging services, Tirapid also offers a range of value-added services, such as CNC machining, CNC 5-axis machining, CNC milling, CNC turning, surface finishing, and rapid prototyping. Contact our support team today and receive a market competitive quote within 4 hours.

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